This is a cross-sectional study measuring the knowledge and practices of selected health-oriented CSOs on antibiotic resistance under specific thematic areas using qualitative and quantitative methods through structured questionnaire-guided interviews. Four (4) regions were selected purposively based on the activities of relevant CSOs in these regions. A total of 177 respondents responded to the questionnaire.

The survey identified the following gaps:

[View the Executive Summary of the Report here]

[View the full report here]

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FOR THE KABP SURVEY

Executive Summary 

The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance has been recognized as one of the major regional as well as global health problems today. About 440 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) emerge annually, causing at least 150 000 deaths.

The general objective for this survey is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of health- related Civil Society Organisations on five (5) -thematic areas which are as follows: ease of access to antibiotics; use of antibiotics and effectiveness; safety and resistance to antibiotics; perceptions on health worker and patient relationship; and practice and resistance-assessing knowledge of resistance in practice. The gaps identified would inform education, training and behavioral change communication.

This is a cross-sectional study measuring the knowledge and practices of selected health-oriented CSOs on antibiotic resistance under specific thematic areas using qualitative and quantitative methods through structured questionnaire-guided interviews. Four (4) regions were selected purposively based on the activities of relevant CSOs in these regions. A total of 177 respondents responded to the questionnaire.

The survey identified the following gaps:

Gap1: Potential Gap for Coalition and CSHC

• There is the need to address the knowledge gaps and the existence of wrong information on general knowledge of antibiotics with examples of some common antibiotics used or misused in Ghana.

Gap2: Appropriate sources of antibiotics 

• There is the need to address the practice gaps with respect to the access of antibiotics from the appropriate outlets and the reasons why this must be practiced.

Gap3: The reasons for the need for prescriptions to get antibiotics

• Though the percentage responses seem favourable, there is the need for respondents for Coalition and CSHC to appreciate the reasons why prescriptions are needed to access antibiotics.

 

Gaps4:

• On the question "Antibiotics are effective against bacteria";

A knowledge gap was identified especially for CSHC; scoring 14.3% wrong responses

• On the question "Antibiotics are effective against viruses";

A knowledge gap was identified especially for Coalition and CSHC; scoring 41.3% and 28.6% wrong responses respectively.

Also for the absence of information, 20.6% and 28.6% responses for “Don’t know” respectively for Coalition and CSHC.

• On the question "All common colds are caused by bacteria";

A knowledge gap was observed especially for Coalition, CSHC; scoring 42.9% wrong responses. 

Also for absence of information, 25.4% and 21.4% responses for “Don’t know” respectively for Coalition and CSHC.

• On the question "All colds are caused by viruses";

A knowledge gap was observed especially for Coalition, CSHC and LAPAG; scoring 19.0%, 14.3% and 48.0% wrong responses each. There is a specific species of bacteria that could cause cold.

Also for 17.5% and 28.6% responses for “Don’t know” respectively for Coalition and CSHC and 7.0% “Don’t know” responses from LAPAG.

• On the question "Antibiotics speed up recovery from cold";

A knowledge gap was identified for this area across all three groups.

• Responses for "If the phlegm from a nasal catarrh is colored, you may need an antibiotic for treatment"

There is both the absence of information (20.6 and 50.0% responses for ‘don’t know’) from Coalition and CSHC respectively and the presence of wrong information, 11.1% wrong responses from Coalition.

• On the question "If you have a cough for more than a week, you may need antibiotics";

There is the need to clarity on the responses for the Coalition and LAPAG scoring 15.9 and 29% in support of the fact that if one coughs for more than a week one may NOT need antibiotics. This trend of responses could be due to the use of the clause ‘may need’. This has however, been added to the list of issues to be addressed as gaps.

• On the question "Diarrhoea in under 5year old child almost always needs to be treated with Antibiotics"

There is both the absence of information (36.5 and 28.6% responses for ‘don’t know’) and the presence of wrong information, 39.7 and 21.4% wrong responses from Coalition and CSHC respectively.

• On the question "By taking antibiotics regularly, you avoid having to be sick and off work"

There is both the absence of information (17.5 and 14.3% responses for ‘don’t know’) and the presence of wrong information, 30.2 and 14.3% wrong responses from Coalition and CSHC respectively.

• On the question "Antibiotics kill all the bacteria in the body"

A knowledge gap was identified within the Coalition group scoring 17.5% wrong responses.

• On the question "Powder from antibiotic capsules can be poured directly into wounds"

A knowledge gap was observed especially for the Coalition and CSHC scoring 52.5 and 28.6 % respectively.

 

Gaps5:

• On the question "All the bacteria in the body are harmful";

There is the absence of information for Coalition 14.3% and the presence of wrong information for 41.3% and 35.7% for Coalition and CSHC respectively. 

• On the question "Antibiotics can cause an imbalance in the body’s bacterial flora";

A knowledge gap was observed in this area at levels 12.7% and 14.3% for Coalition and CSHC respectively.

• Though the question "Bacteria can fail to respond to antibiotic treatment", was answered fairly well, there was still the absence of information for 15.9% of the Coalition group.

• On the question "The use of antibiotics in animals can reduce the effect of the antibiotic on humans";

A knowledge gap was identified in all three groups. Thus between 26% to 44.4% wrong responses and 20% to 50% responses for don’t know.

• On the question "Antibiotic resistance can spread in the population";

A knowledge gap was observed for the Coalition group, scoring 19% wrong responses. There is also lack of information for 23.8% and 42.9% Coalition and CSHC groups respectively.

• On the question "Antibiotic resistance is a problem in Ghana today";

A knowledge gap was observed in the Coalition group, with lack of information 27% and 42.9% in the Coalition and CSHC groups respectively.

• On the question "Antibiotic resistance is not a problem in the world today";

A knowledge gap was observed across all the groups in this area. There is 12.7% of Coalition and 27% of LAPAG responded that antibiotic resistance is not a problem in the word today. There was also lack of information for 30.2% and 35.7% of the Coalition and CSHC respectively.

Generally all the respondents from the CSO's involved in this study had a fair knowledge on the issues and also behaviour and practices that could promote antibiotic resistance. However, in some specific areas such as antibiotic use and safety and how they relate to resistance, the knowledge of the respondents on the issues were inadequate to be able to empower society with information to inform attitude and behaviour change or the respondents had wrong information and could mislead the public. 

Expectedly LAPAG appeared more knowledgeable in all the areas compared to the other groups because they are pharmacists. 

Key areas (such as ‘The use of antibiotics in animals reducing the effect of the antibiotic on humans’,’ Antibiotics speed up recovery from cold’, and ’ All colds are caused by viruses’) where knowledge gaps were identified in all the CSO groups need more attention for educational intervention as these CSO's would be used to educate communities/society to inform behavioural change on the use of antibiotics to minimise the risk of the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in society, through wrong or irrational use of antibiotics.

 

 

CSO resources

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